Keywords : Climate change
International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub,
2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICARD 2020, Pages 251-255
The surroundings in which we live comprises of numerous life forms such as birds, fishes, plants and trees. In simple terms, it is the variability and variety of living organisms together with ecological facilities in which they exist. Over the years, the biodiversity has been facing rapid depletion as a result of habitat loss, excessive exploitation of resources, climatic changes, diseases, pollution, poaching of animals etc. In order to correct this scenario, vital steps for biodiversity conservation have to be taken by public in general along with the government and social organizations. Thus, biodiversity conservation has become a major issue in present times. The term biodiversity was coined as a contraction of biological diversity in 1985. Biodiversity may be defined as the variety and variability of living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they exist. In other words, biodiversity is the occurrence of different types of ecosystems, different species of organisms with the whole range of their variants and genes adapted to different climates, environments along with their interactions and processes. Loss of biodiversity occurs when either the habitat essential for the survival of a species is destroyed, or particular species are destroyed. The former is more common as habitat destruction is a fallout of development. The latter reason is encountered when particular species are exploited for economical gain or hunted for sport or food. Extinction of species may also be due to environmental factors like ecological substitutions, biological factors and pathological causes which can be caused by nature or man. Conservation of biodiversity is protection, upliftment and scientific management of biodiversity so as to maintain it at its threshold level and derive sustainable benefits for the present and future generation.