Volume 2, Special Issue ICAMET 10S - Issue Serial Number 10, October 2020, Page 1-300


Global Economy with comparative study of India and China in a pandemic situation

Chetan K; Yogish S.N.

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.190

As countries placed tight restrictions on travel to curb the spread of the virus, the COVID-19 pandemic spread with alarming ease, infecting millions and bringing economic activity to a practical standstill. The Global Economic Prospects for June 2020 define both the immediate and short-term outlook for the effects of the pandemic and the long-term harm it has spread to growth prospects. Despite the unprecedented efforts of governments to fight the slowdown with fiscal and monetary policy support, the baseline projection envisages a 5.2 percent contraction in global GDP in 2020 using market exchange rate weights, the worst global recession in decades. The deep recessions caused by the pandemic are projected to leave lasting scars over the long view through lower investment, the depletion of human resources through a job and school losses, and the breakdown of global trade and supply links.

Green-synthesis of metallic nanoparticles & their biomedical utilizations: An illustrative review

Goswami Lakhminandan; Gogoi Manas Jyoti

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 6-10
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.191

In modern days the study and research of metallic nanoparticles is one of the important fields of science due to its important application in the field of catalysis, bio-medical, sensors, antimicrobials, catalysis, agricultural field etc. The green synthesis of nanoparticles have proved to be better than the chemical method due to the large amount of capital involved in production in chemical method and it can solve the difficult environmental challenges like solar energy conservation , agricultural production, catalysis etc. These biocompatible nanoparticles exists in the form of mono-metallic nanoparticles or in two or more metals as alloys found extremely beneficial applications as antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticoagulant agents. In this review, an attempt is made to project the different routes of bio-synthesized processes to obtain metallic nanoparticles and their biomedical utilizations.

Development of Cost Model for Heat Exchanger of Residential and Industry Application

Sanjeevakumar Patil; Shivaraj B W; Keshav V

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 11-19
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.192

Manual cost estimation process for heat exchanger having the less accuracy when compared with supplier’s quotation and having several challenges like costing is based on the assumption, inaccurate process time estimation, data collection from the plant are not up to date. The objective of this work was to develop an accurate, reliable and time-saving cost model using the aPriori cost estimation tool for heat exchanger.  aPriori cost estimation tool consist of two parts are Virtual Production Environment (VPE) and Cost Model (CM). VPE is the digital copy of the specific plant. To develop the VPE required data was material data, machine data, process data and plant data and created the template to collect the data from the plant. CM was written with Cost Scripting Language (CSL) are used to build logic and formulae and defined the cost taxonomy, machine selection rule and material selection rule was developed. VPE and CM was developed for manual brazing, robotic brazing, tube expansion, tube insertion and turret press process.  Validated the manufacturing times consist of cycle time 103 seconds and labor time 103 seconds and cost variables consist of labor cost $ 0.87, direct overhead cost $ 0.03, addition direct cost $0.20, total variable cost $ 1.10 and fully burdened cost $ 1.46 for manual brazing process and similarly validated the cost parameters for the robotic brazing, tube insertion, tube expansion and turret press process successfully. aPriori cost estimation model reduced the overall production time, improve the productivity and quality of the product. aPriori cost model estimated that manufacturing cost of fin and tube heat exchanger around annual saving 19% of manual process cost estimation of the fin and tube heat exchanger.

A Study on Formulation and Nutritional Evaluation of Leucas Asperaflower (Thumbai) Balls

Vidhya C. S.; Sharmila P.

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 20-22
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.193

Leucas aspera is an herbal plant species within the leucas genus and the lamiaceae family, it is commonly known as Thumbai in Tamil, drona pushpi in Sanskrit, gomamadhupati in Hindi (Kalachaveedu et al. 2006). All parts of Thumbai plant have medicinal values.Flowers and leaves of Thumbai plant are used for curing many diseases. Leucas asperai.e. Thumbai flowers isused as stimulant, expectorant, aperient, diaphoretic, insecticide and emmenagogue (Prajapati et al, 2010). Nutrient balls are pretty much a perfect nutritious snack, they offer satiating combination of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats and are customizable and portable and offer perfect nutrient mix of calories and body building nutrients (Misra. 2005). It was observed that standardized leucas aspera flower balls had mean score and standard deviation for appearance, colour, texture, taste, flavour was 3.73 ± 0.746, 3.92 ± 0.784, 4.96 ± 0.952, 3.64 ± 0.728, 3.66 ± 0.55 and the overall acceptability was 19.91 ± 3.760 and showed good characteristics. The nutrient content of the leucas aspera flower balls have increased amounts of Carbohydrate i.e. 39gm, protein 9.2 gm, fat content 0.3%, iron 20mg, and calcium 1.2mg/dl.

Grafting of Poly (acrylonitrile) on Cellulose to Synthesize and Characterize Potential Functional Polymers for Development of Metal Ion Sorbents

Suresh Kumar

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 23-27
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.194

Grafting of Acrylonitrile onto cellulose from different sources, using a variety of chemical initiators under various reaction conditions has been thoroughly investigated and reported. Hydrophobic nature of acrylonitrile hinders the partition of metal ions form aqueous phase thus narrows the applicationspectrum of its graft copolymers inseparation and enrichment processes. However, this drawback can be improved by post functionalization of nitrile (-CN) group to generate hydrophilic/ionic moieties by simple reactions like hydrolysis or substitution. In present study, acrylonitrile (AN) was grafted onto commercial cellulose to produce graft copolymers which can be used as starting materials for development of efficient metal ions sorbents. Grafting was carried out by redox initiation method using Ce+4 ions following the earlier reported scheme at the optimum grafting conditions worked out for grafting of AN onto  cellulose ether, Hydroxyethyl cellulose(HEC). Graft copolymer thus obtained [hereafter called cell-g-poly (AN)] was characterized by Elemental analysis and FTIR. Both, cellulose and HEC belong to same back bone therefore, exhibited similar behaviour towards grafting. Percent grafting (Pg =50) obtained in case of cellulose was in close agreement with (Pg=55.5) that observed in case of HEC. Cell-g-poly (AN) served as useful precursor to develop reactive metal ion sorbing polymer supports as nitrile (-CN) moiety of poly (AN) is amenable to post functionalization and could be conveniently modified to targeted metal ion chelating amido-oxime group [poly (NH2-C=NHOH))] thus  the resultant polymer  could be used as a novel support for metal ion sorption.

Integrating Emerging Cryptographic Engineering Investigation and Safety Education Complete Embedded

Lochan Rampal; Qurratul Aini; Sumaya Tazeen; Mirza Younus Ali Baig; Sabah Syed Nasirullah

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 28-33
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.195

Unlike conventional installed frames, for example, secure glossy cards, which develop deeply embedded protected frames, such as implantable in addition to portable clinical devices, must have a larger "attack surface". A security breach in such frames that plug deep into human bodies or elements would be dangerous, so adopting conventional arrangements is probably not practical due to the strict limitations of these often battery-controlled frames. Unfortunately, although the development of encrypted scanning systems has begun to solve this basic problem, undergraduate education (both undergraduate and graduate level) is equally weakened. One of the important explanations behind this slowness is the multidisciplinary nature of the development of security bottlenecks (arithmetic, engineering, science and pharmaceuticals, to name a few). In light of the inspiration mentioned above, in this article we present a successful exploration and training system to conquer this topic at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Furthermore, we present the consequences of more than a year of implementation of the methodology introduced at the degree level in contextual investigations complete with "assaults on the secondary station exam.

Impact of COVID-19 on Education

Yeshi Ngima; Dorjee Tsering

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 34-39
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.196

The world has witnessed a standstill moment because of outbreak of coronavirus not sparing anyone across ethnicity, be it rich or poor, black or white, east or west, north or south. The pandemic has affected various sectors, education being one of it. According to UNESCO, close to 900 million learners have been affected by the closure of educational institutions. (11) Due to this pandemic, the educational institutions have to move from conventional mode of parting education to online mode. The research paper highlights advantages and disadvantages of imparting education through online mode during the pandemic situation.

Conceptualizing the Importance of HR Analytics in Attrition Reduction

Rupa Chatterjee Das; Anjana Devi S.C

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 40-48
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.197

The objective of the conceptual paper for analysing the opportunities and challenges of HR Analytics for reducing the attrition rate in the organization. The paper highlighted the important reasons of high attrition in different type of organizations and the effective approaches by the respective organizations for reducing attrition rate. Employee attrition is one of serious issues in the current corporate scenario as it impacts on the organizational image, values, culture, reputation, and job satisfaction. Moreover, high attrition is related to high cost for any organization. This research intended to explore employee attrition and finding out gaps in work and improve in those areas for reducing attrition accordingly. The sources of data used are both primary & secondary. HR Managers of select organizations were requested to share the recent trends with the usage & applications of HR Analytical tools. The data was collected by conducting personal interactions over telephones as primary source. Journals & research articles in the domain of HR analytics were used to get better insights. Effective recruitment structure, working environment and Employee Engagement is created. Though the prediction by HR Analytics is a challenging job but there are many methodologies which can change the look of the organization and HR team can measure and predict the gap for attrition. This research paper explains the analytical process for reducing attrition and importance of utilization of HR Analytics.

Green Chemistry of Organic Farming and Organic Food: A Review

Keya Adak; Shilpi Shrivastava

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 49-52
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.198

The organic farming system follows various principles of natural ecosystem which is based on the structural and functional relationships of natural ecosystems. The food production historypresume that organic farming  was the predominant cultivation method practiced for last decade, but in the beginning of the twentieth century we observed the advanced biochemistry and bio-engineering  immensely changed cultivation system  by uses synthetic fertilizers and pesticides(Fabiansson, 2014). But the consumption of organic food has seen a marked increment around the globe in the past decade. The common reports suggested that organic foods have a better taste as compared to the other conventional kinds, primarily because the crops have been given more time to develop and mature, in addition to usage of environment friendly agricultural techniques.As organic foods and conventional products are close substitutes, consumers conveniently choose the cheaper, conventional category and thus, limiting the demand for organic food. It is difficult to justify the price premium to the consumers as health benefits from organic food consumption cannot be particularly quantified.Organic farming and its coordination and administration enhance the environment as well as human health which have an important objective for all credible economic food production and growth.

In vitro shoot regeneration of hypocotyl explants of Foeniculum vulgare-a culinary and medicinal herb

POORNIMA SHARMA; Jaydip Mandal

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 53-61
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.199

A reproducible protocol for in vitro shoot regeneration and plantlet establishment was developed from hypocotyl-derived callus explants of Foeniculum vulgare. Callus induction frequency was the highest (92%) on SH (Schenk & Hildebrandt) medium supplemented with 4.44 μM BA (N6-benzyladenine) and 1.34 μM NAA (α-naphthaleneacetic acid) followed by 86% and 80% on MS (Murashige & Skoog) and NN (Nitsch & Nitsch) medium respectively after 40 d of culture. The organogenic callus induced better shoot regeneration frequency (92%) on SH medium containing 6.66 µM BA as compared to 87% and 75% on MS and NN medium respectively. The highest  number of  9.2 shoots per callus explant was achieved with the mean  shoot length of 5.48 cm on SH medium supplemented with 6.66 µM BA followed by decreasing shoot production of 8.2 shoots and 7.3 shoots per callus explant on MS and NN medium respectively. The in vitro regenerated shoots produced the maximum root induction frequency of 94% on SH medium with 1.34 µM NAA, while on MS and NN media,frequencies of root induction were 86% and 77% respectively. There were 6.6 roots per shoot with an average root length of 6.4 cm on SH medium with a level of1.34 µM NAA, while MS and NN media with the same level of auxin (1.34 µM NAA) induced an average of 5.8 and 5.3 roots per shoot respectively after 60 d of culture. In vitro derived plantlets acclimated successfully with 100 % survival.

Synthesis and Biological Screening of Some New Schiff Base Nickel (II) Complexes

Durairaj P.; Venkateswari P.; Sruthipriya D; Mr. Manjunathan; Maruthavanan T.

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 62-70
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.200

New Schiff bases Ni (II) complexes are synthesized from the condensation of an ethylenediamine compound with salicylicacid compounds and these coordinate to metal ions via substituted salicyladehydeschiff base and their nickel complexes possess remarkable properties as catalysts in various biological systems, antioxidant activities, antiasthmatic and diabetic activities, anticancer activities, antitumor and cytotoxic activities, pharmaceutical fields. Schiff base ligands and their coordination chemistry of nickel attract much attention because of its biological relevance and its own interesting of coordination chemistry. This review summarizes the application of nickel schiff bases complexes and structures were confirmed by IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and Mass Spectra.

Medical Assistive Robot (MAR)

Karthikeyan A.G.; Kishan K; Pattabiraman M; Prathiv S

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 71-75
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.201

Accessibility to basic healthcare is an important one in terms of development towards building a healthy future. The MEDICAL ASSISTIVE ROBOT is a device used to provide correct medication at correct time with the right amount of dosage without the aid of nurse. The robot also act as path following robot so there is no need to reach the robot in order to take the pill instead of that robot will reach the patient, it also consist of an object detecting sensor(IR) to avoid the obstacle in the path. The device uses RFID card to link the patient id which hold all the data of the patients such as identity and their prescription etc.. A specially designed wheal like structure with N number of slots acts as pill storage space. The arduino microcontroller used to automate the whole process. Each slot of pill storage named to a particular tablet in terms of rotating angle of stepper motor. Suction pump used to pick the pill. The process starts when the user taps the RFID card. In this work the device is designed and manufactured in an efficient way. There are some other devices that perform similar function Ex: The Automatic pill dispenser, All time medication but this project deals with integration of the doctors prescription, which results in overcoming the manual error. The objective of this project is to reduce the avoidable medication errors in the absence of the doctor also help the older people who are poor in memory.

Study on Strength Characteristics of Geopolymer Concrete using M-Sand

Selvamuthukumar S; Kumaravel S

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 76-80
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.202

A major environmental issue in the world is pollution in cement production. Geopolymer concrete also in construction industry is an alternate cement material as well as an eco-friendly material. Using fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag as base materials and sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate combination as alkaline activators, the geopolymer concrete is prepared. The sand is an important part of concrete; it is mainly procured from natural sources. Environmental and economy aspects are better obtained, if locally available sources can be used. Manufactured sand substitutes the fine aggregate in the concrete in several percentages as the sand is well graded and gives greater concrete power.  In the present analysis, the strength of concrete with manufactured sand is studied in proportions of different percentage as a replacement for natural sand.

The Challenges of Poverty, Types and Its Causes

Sharath A.M

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 81-85
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.203

Destitution is a monetary state where individuals are encountering shortage or the absence of specific products that are required for the lives of people like cash and material things. Accordingly, destitution is a multifaceted idea comprehensive of social, monetary and political components. Destitution has become an incredible issue in our reality. Despite the fact that numerous associations have been made to find answers to this issue, no one could fully spare our reality from destitution. The most well-known fact that we can understand when contemplating destitution data is that neediness normally exists in the development of nations. Around 25 percent of the population currently lives in deteriorated need, according to them. Undoubtedly, even the assembly of India has yielded that around 20 crore people in India live in a state of pathetic destitution with no permission to minimized drinking water, purification, and two complete meals. In light of these issues I should think about the challenges of desperation and its causes in India and its sorts.

Numerical Analysis of Dimple Effect on Airfoils for varied AoA

Saravanan R; Sharu Sri K; Sundareswaran E; Vyshnavi Krishnamoorthy; Sri Balaji S

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 86-94
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.204

The main objective of aircraft aerodynamics is to enhance the aerodynamic characteristics and manoeuvrability of the aircraft. This enhancement includes the reduction in drag and stall phenomenon. The airfoil, which contains dimples, will have comparatively less drag than the plain airfoil. Introducing dimples on the aircraft wing will create turbulence by creating vortices, which delays the boundary layer separation resulting in decrease of pressure drag and increase in the angle of stall. In addition, wake reduction leads to reduction in acoustic emission. The overall objective of this study is to improve the aircraft manoeuvrability by delaying the flow separation point at stall and thereby reducing the drag by applying the dimple effect over the aircraft wing. This Study includes computational analysis of dimple effect on NACA 0018 airfoil. Dimple shapes of square selected for the analysis; airfoil tested under the inlet velocity of 30m/s at different angle of attack (12˚, 14˚, 16˚, 18˚,) for 8mm & 10mm diameter of Dimples. This analysis favours the dimple effect by increasing L/D ratio and thereby providing the maximum aerodynamic efficiency, which provides the enhanced performance for the aircraft

An Introduction to Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria, Antifungal Metabolites Biosynthesis using PRPR with reference to Pseudomonas species and It’s other characteristics like Antagonistic and Biocontrolling properties

Pooja Dahiya; Roopsi Kaushik; Anil Sindhu

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 95-100

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PRGR) are the rhizosphere bacteria that help  in the enhancement of plant growth by a variety of mechanisms like phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, biological nitrogen fixation, rhizosphere engineering, production of 1-Aminocyclopropane -1carboxylate deaminase (ACC), quorum sensing(QS) signal interference and inhibition of biofilm formation phytohormone production, exhibiting antifungal activity, production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), induction of systematic resistance, promoting beneficial plant microbe symbiosis, interference with pathogen toxin production etc. It is generally free living, soil borne bacteria. The potentiality of PGPR is continuously increasing as it offers us a good way to replace the chemical fertilizers, pesticides as well as directly or indirectly influence the whole morphology of the plants and play a vital role in crop protection, growth promotion and in the improvement of soil health. Some well known PGPR Strains are Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Azospirrillum, Rhizobium and Serratia species. Different strains of PGPR are capable of secreting antifungal metabolites (AFM) like siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide. For example Pseudomonas fluorescens belonging to PGPR class produce siderophore and control Phythium ultimum and Pseudomonas stuzeri produce chitinase which lyse the cell wall of Fusarium solani. Antifungal metabolites produced by these Rhizobacteria were identified as antibiotics ( iturin, surfactins, fengycin, DAPG, Phenazine etc, ), cell wall degrading enzymes( proteses, chitinases, cellulases), plant growth promoting enzymes and hormones  (indole-3-Acetic Acid, ACC-deaminase, phosphatase, nitrogen fixation), N-acylhomoderine lactones and sideophore. Due to synthesis of antifungal metabolites PGPR also used as a biocontrol agent in case of many diseases for instance, it degrades fusaric acid produced by Fusarium sp. That is a causative agent of wilt. They also help plants to be resistant against biotic stresses via direct antagonism to pathogens or by induction of systematic resistance to pathogens. It mostly trigger induced systematic resistance via methyl jasmonate and methyl salicyclate in plants.

An Analytical Study of Applied Mathematical Model towards Several Ecological Systems

Gangadhar Kishanrao Patil; Jaya Singh

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 101-107

This paper focuses on those parts of 20th century applied mathematics that have entered into the toolkit of ecology. Historically, the recent trend of applying mathematics to ecology is discussed. It is proposed that this new development can be seen in the extension of its application as the natural development of applied mathematics. There is no assumption that the mathematical concepts and methods employed would be significantly different from those used in mainstream applied mathematics. In terms of estimates for reference to empirical data, conventional concepts and methods of statistical physics can be successfully applied. A case study on the history of statistics and operational research discusses several ways to integrate the development of applied mathematics of the twentieth century into an ecological context.

Exploring Resources in Word Sense Disambiguation for Marathi Language

Amit Patil; Chhaya Patli; Rakesh Ramteke; Bhavsar R. P.; Hemant Darbari

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 108-111

Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is one of the most challenging problems in the research area of natural language processing.  To find the correct sense of the word in a particular context is called Word Sense Disambiguation. As a human, we can get a correct sense of the word given in the sentence because of word knowledge of that particular natural language, but it is not an easy task for the machine to disambiguate the word. Developing any WSD system, it required sense repository and sense dictionary. It is very costly and time-consuming to build these resources. Many foreign languages have available these resources, that is why most of the foreign languages like English, German, Spanish etc lot of work is done in these Natural languages. When we look for Indian languages like Hindi, Marathi, Bengali etc. very less work is done. The reason behind this is resource-scarcity. In this paper, we majorly focus on Marathi Language Word Sense Disambiguation because of very less work is done in the Marathi Language as compared to Hindi and other Indian Languages. Our main objective is to provide information about various resources available for the Marathi language which will be helpful for researchers who wants to do work for Marathi WSD. This paper also gives a review on work done for Marathi Language WSD and its challenges and problems.

Challenges for RFID Technology used in Libraries

Geetanjali Rana Kanwar

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 112-120

The technological advancements has taken fast pace globally throughout the world during last 10 years. The more and more digital impact has been seen in different areas related to every field. Private as well as government sectors put large emphasis and financial budget involvements to make most of the activities digital among people. The new RFID technology developed and when implemented in the libraries, it reduces the workload of circulating books through digital process of check-in and checkout among the users. RFID reduces time required to perform the Circulation operations in the libraries as compared to manual activities. RFID tags are capable and much faster than barcodes and with the help of handheld reader; items in the stack can be read at the same time. Apart from the advantages, the technology RFID has to face many challenges for its implementation and smooth working in the digital environment. The financial budget involved in it is very high. Due to chances of tag removal and tag collision, it needs extra care to be given. RFID is an excellent advanced technology but it needs to improve security factors and standards of its products and services.

Review on Different Preparation Techniques of Lead Zirconate Titanate

Balgovind Tiwari; Babu T.; Choudhary R.N.P.

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue Special Issue ICAMET 10S, Pages 121-126

Lead zirconatetitanate (PZT), one of the best piezoelectric material, possess prominent dielectric and ferroelectric properties. It is widely used in several applications such as transistors, ferroelectric memories, sensors, etc. After discovering the existence of ferroelectricity in PZT, various synthesis techniques have been developed to produce PZT in various forms. In this paper, we report an extensive review on different preparation methods of PZT. The analysis has been done on the basis of literature which was collected from different sources. On the basis of cost effectiveness, PZT can be prepared in ceramic and film forms using solid state synthesis and sol-gel methods respectively. This review also include other synthesis techniques such as co-precipitation method, hydrothermal assisted process, spray pyrolysis, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), chemical solution deposition (CSD), etc. Also, this paper report the kind of properties that have been investigated, under different methods.