Issue 11

Inhibition of Mineralization of Urinary Calcium Phosphate Stones by Sodium Pyrophosphate

Nilam Kumari; Naresh Kumar

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 11, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.211

To understand the biological importance of sodium pyrophosphate and its applicability as inhibitors in urolithiasis disease, we have studied the inhibition efficiency of sodium pyrophosphate towards the mineralization of urinary stone forming minerals like calcium phosphate, in aqueous as well as urinary medium. An attempt has been made to unfold, tentatively, the mechanism of inhibition by this inhibitor. It was Observational experiment. The Study was Conducted in the chemistry lab of university department of chemistry, B N Mandal University, Madhepura (Bihar) An experimental model was designed by taking the salt forming solutions, the whole operation took about 40-50 min. At the end the contents of beaker were digested in a hot water bath, cooled to room temperature and centrifuged in small volumes. The total centrifugate was collected and Calcium and carbonate content of the centrifugate of calcium carbonate mineralization experiments were determined. Sodium pyrophosphate has a moderate inhibition efficiency towards calcium carbonate mineralization. At 0.05 M concentration, sodium pyrophosphate has a net inhibition of 30 % which is 26.65 % more than that of water (blank). Compared to water the percentage inhibition increased by 795.52%. With decreasing concentrations of sodium pyrophosphate, the inhibition efficiency decreases. At very low concentration (0.01 M) its inhibition is only slightly higher than that of water. In urinary medium sodium pyrophosphate seems to function as a better inhibitor of phosphate mineralization. At 0.05 M concentration, sodium pyrophosphate has a net inhibition of 89.22 % which is 75.36 % more than that of urine.  It is observed that sodium pyrophosphate solution, under different concentrations, exhibits moderate to good efficiency of inhibition towards mineralization of urinary stone forming minerals like calcium carbonate in aqueous as well as urinary medium.

Need of Energy Audit in Everyday Life

Muniyandy Elangovan; Ravichandran A T; Prabhukumar Chellamuthu

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 11, Pages 6-11
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.212

Life is unimaginable without energy because we depend on different forms of energy in our day to day activities. Authors have discussed the importance of energy in human life and how it can be optimized to reduce  the consumption by following certain procedures at different working places. Audit types and carrying out approaches are discussed with a methodology to execute the conservation of energy in daily life. Value of energy is discussed as a citizen point of view from different users like Students, Teachers, Family members, officers and employees. The need and importance of energy conservation and audit are discussed for today’s technological world

Basic Design for the development of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

Muniyandy Elangovan; Balaji T

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 11, Pages 12-17
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.213

The artificial intelligence (AI) is used to automate the operation by taking a decision based on the situation or conditions. It is expected that around 2025, Robotics can move on earth similar to a human and support human society. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is in every field to automate the decision making intelligence to execute the desired operation. Understanding the need and importance of AUV for underwater operation, the authors have identified the need an AUV for the monitor, search and rescue operation. During the development unmanned vehicle, it was identified that the major task and key functionalities to be known to the researchers who want to contribute in this AI domain. The functionalities of AUV is decided by features which can be grouped into six categories as (i) Design of AUV shape (ii) Functionalities  (iii) Design of Mechanical and Electrical system (iv) Control system (v) Navigation system (vi) Embedded system/software programming and (vii) Propulsion system. As a researcher, understanding each task or goal is very much needed and useful. Keeping the new researchers need, each task has been studied and highlighted the critical issue in each task which was faced in our development process. This paper can encourage many new researchers to do research in the upcoming domain of AUV.

Hydrodynamic Energy Devices to Improve the Efficiency of Propulsion System in AUVs

Muniyandy Elangovan

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 11, Pages 18-22
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.214

Usually, most of the AUV has the propeller and it is placed in a suitable position for maneuvering in the required direction. For single propeller AUVs, propeller is placed at the aft, and direction is controlled using wings that are placed aft. Energy is a major part of an underwater operation to decide the duration of underwater operation. To increase the duration of the battery, either the energy consumption can be reduced or the efficiency of the propulsion system needs to be improved. Here the possible opportunities to improve the propulsion system using hydrodynamic energy devices are discussed. Though many options are available, based on space availability & speed, a suitable combination of devices can be added. It is recommended to carry out CFD analysis to make sure that proposed devices can bring improvement in the propulsion system before it is implemented.

A Review on Recent Developments in Micro-channels for Cooling Applications

Jagannath Suresh

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 11, Pages 23-25
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.215

Cooling of miniaturized spaces like electronic components is a major challenge to heat transfer engineers. Miniaturization of systems is an advantage and there has been a recent flourish of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). Hence, there is an obvious increase in demand for cooling of micro-devices and implementation of micro-channels is one of the most efficient ways for cooling applications in micro systems. The present paper discusses the applications of micro-channels, nature of flow in micro-channels, suitable materials which includes the recent developments in micro-channel material selection, fabrication aspects used for making micro-channels and the limitations which hinders a fully successful implementation of micro-channels. The use of fins and special materials recently introduced by the industry is also discussed.

Synthesis and Mechanical Analysis of on iron powder of mixed glass fiber reinforced polymer composite Material

Aravinth B.; Vivek G.; Gokulakrishanan S.; Manikandan D.

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 11, Pages 26-29
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.216

The present work reinforces material for polymer composites alternative to the use of Epoxy resin LY556, Glass – Woven and Chopped. The hybrid composite material   is a combination of two or more different types of fiber in which one types of fiber balance the deficiency of other filler. Iron powders are used as a filler material. The composite laminates were fabricated by varying weight percentage of 0, 1, 3, & 5 of Filler material using hand layup technique. The mechanical properties of the prepared composites materials were characterized in terms of tensile strength and impact (Izod) tests as per ASTM standards. At addition of 3 wt. % of iron powder the tensile strength was improved by 44% and impact strength by 94.2% when compared with neat polymer composites. The reason for the enhancement was wonderful interfacial bonding with fiber and polymer matrix.

Investigation on the Electrical Conductivity of PZT Modified by Manganese and Cerium

Balgovind Tiwari; Babu T.; Choudhary R.N.P.

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 11, Pages 30-34
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.217

PZT is a ferroelectric ceramic material that has acquired immense importance in the field of electronics industry. The main focus of this report is to present the electrical conductivity response of manganese and cerium modified lead zirconatetitanate (PZT). The conductivity response has been investigated with respect to frequency of applied ac electric field and temperature. The samples have been prepared by mixing high purity chemicals, through high temperature solid state route. The frequency response of electrical conductivity has been analysed on the basis of Maxwell-Wagner and Koop’s model. The temperature response of electrical conductivity indicated that the compounds exhibit Arrhenius behaviour.

Applications of discrete event simulation: A literature review

Parthiban M.; Ram Kumar P

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 11, Pages 35-40
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.218

This review article presents how various authors have used discrete event simulation to improve an existing system with least financial involvement and no down times to conduct the study. The simulation process has proven to be efficient in most of the cases and was able to identify the system bottlenecks critical areas and suggest necessary improvements which could be implemented in real life. Further use of simulation software Such as ARENA has proven how diverse its use has been it could be used anywhere from a critical emergency ward to a local store to check the system performance find out where its lacking, workout various alternate scenarios, put it into test and implement it all this without disturbing the actual system.

Digital Assistant for Ventilators Using SVM Algorithm and Speech Recognition

Vishnupriya S

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 11, Pages 41-49
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.219

Many health care assists had been developed to help the clinicians in treating the patient. A single monitor for managing an instrument seems very expensive. The transferring of data from the single setup also requires high communication costs. The personal assistant developed has many drawbacks due to the changes in prosodic cues according to the people’s language slang and the trouble in analysing the paralinguistic information. The network data and energy consumption required for the transfer of information from the health care devices becomes quite large. The project, involves an easy transmission module and assisting method to avoid these issues. This project is involved in assisting a practitioner, physician or respiratory therapists in proper handling of a ventilator, in accordance with patient’s health state and parameter. On providing ventilation, it is important to notice the ventilator readings such as i-PEEP, Ppeak, Pplat (developed values in the patient’s respiratory system) which are the response of the patient etc.,. On observation of these readings, the parameters such as e-PEEP, VT, RR and FiO2 (values to be set by the clinician) have to be adjusted for better ventilation and for the purpose of weaning of patient in a short period. The preliminary work involved is the data acquisition and logging. The SVM algorithm has been developed with many data points as the parameters obtained from data. The protruding idea is to analyse the patient’s age, gender, weight, disorder, type of surgery and its duration. Thus, the value of the parameter that has to be adjusted can be determined intricately with the protruding idea of digital assist.

Myoelectric Potential Visualization Using Butterworth Band pass Filter

Puviyarasan. S; Muthukumaran S; Pratheen raj B

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 11, Pages 47-52
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.220

Electrical revelation of neuromuscular information transmission generated in muscles contraction and relaxation is known as EMG signals. Electromyography (EMG) is real-time based method to assess and observe a series of electrical signals that expressed from body muscular cells. In recent researchers had provided many systems for monitoring myoelectric signals (EMG) to identify various abnormalities such as EMG, Microcontroller sensors technology, EMG software signal processor (SPU), PWM method, capacitive sensing method, UML method, EIM method, ADU integration, MC sensors method, Human computer interfacing (HCI) technology and Functional electrical stimulation (FES). This paper proposes a system to implement a wireless transformation technology for monitoring the electrical potential from muscles to identify internal injuries, blood clots, muscle cramps, muscle fatigue, muscle contraction, limb stiffness, and immobility. In this paper, electrical signals acquired from the muscles are detected using EMG sensors. These occurring signals transmitted by using wireless method and processed by using MAT Lab tool. This technique makes our system more unique from the previous methodologies. Finally accurate EMG signals are displayed graphically. Thus the expected configuration result will be with an accuracy of 98.74%, mean specificity of 99% and with a mean sensitivity of 96.58%.So the error occurrence will be Approximately 0.5% and also system is low cost, electrical safety, low power consumption, and can identify muscle disorders through observed abnormal EMGrange.