Issue 8


Development and Evaluation of Niosomal Gel for TransdermalApplication of steroidal API

Sharma Rupali; Diwan Anupama; Sardana Satish; Sharma Shekhar; Vyas Amisha

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.84

Niosomal drug delivery system serves as drug depots within the body that release the drug in a controlled manner through its bilayer, providing the enclosed drug to be released with sustainedaction.Transdermal drug delivery system for steroidal drug molecules through the development of a niosomal gel is needed for an optimized drug delivery system due to various problems associated with conventional treatment of steroidal molecule. The objective of this study was to develop a niosomalgel-based formulation system for testosterone steroidal molecule dissolved in a mixture of non-ionic surfactant and cholesterol in nanoparticulate form and evaluation of niosomal gel by different optimization parameters. The niosomal gel dispersion was prepared by heating system technique.The drug loaded niosomes showed much less vesicle size [10 - 500 nm] and good PDI, which means that the drug loaded can easily permeate the skin. Niosomal based gel was formulated by using the xanthan gum as gelling agent by optimizing different concentration of different gelling agents to get the best consistency of final niosomal gel. Various measurement parameters such as product quality, pH, purity, homogeneity, spread ability, viscosity, In vitro drug release, particle size determination, zeta potential, FTIR studies and TEM analysis were done to optimize the best batch.Entrapment efficiency was very good with value of 92.17 ± 0.02 percent. Niosomal gel has been found to exhibit strong consistency, good homogeneity, spread ability, and viscosity parameters.Studies of FTIR showed no excipient interaction with the API molecule. TEM images showed that all the particles were in uniform range in niosomal dispersion.Data on the release of in vitro drugs also showed that the release pattern was comparable to the industry formula. The niosomalbased gel formulation developed can be a promising alternative to delivering steroidalbased molecule to minimize the side effects due to skin problems as well as to increase the permeation rate of steroids by using transdermal drug delivery.

Case Study on Performing Indoor Gardening with New Technology Implication to Overcome the Gaps in the Existing Solutions

Prince Reynold P; Pratheep C; Mark Romario Williams M; NithinGnanam R; Mohamed Ariffuddeen M

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 19-22
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.85

In the present-day world, innovation is commanding characteristic things and people aren't in bond with nature. One fundamental issue in this aggregate issue is the inaccessibility of natural foods grown from the ground. In any event, when individuals want to develop natural vegetables, they are in the absence of room at their clogged habitations. In any event, developing it in pots turns into a monotonous procedure because of the prerequisite of successive checking of the plants. Indoor Gardening is a convenient solution for this situation. This paper reviews the benefits and requirements of indoor gardening, and the existing technologies which help urban people practice the art of gardening within their household, office space, or any other closed landscapes, without access to direct sunlight or soil.

Effect of Heat Input on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded AISI 316 Stainless Steel Joints

Karthick B; Shrihari L; Sakthivel M; Shriram S; Silambarasan V

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 23-27
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.86

For every manufacturing industry, materials that are applicable for particular conditions and are of low economy are highly required. Hence various studies are carried out to determine the working conditions for several materials. The wide application of steel in industry demands a significance study on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of steel, Here, the characteristic changes in the mechanical and microstructure properties due to the effect of heat inputs of gas tungsten arc welded AISI 316 Stainless steel were examined. The major issue faced during the welding process of stainless steel is the increase in grain growth in the heat affected zone (HAZ). The welding process have been carried out using three heat input parameters on the AISI 316 Stainless steel from the operating window of the gas tungsten arc welding process (GTAW) and they are categorized as low heat (2.563 KJ/mm), medium heat (2.784 kJ/mm) and high heat (3.017 kJ/mm) . These welded joints of AISI 316 SS have been subjected to evaluation of tensile testing microstructure and mechanical properties so as to interrupt and infer the impact of thermal arc energy on the mechanical properties and microstructure of AISI 316 SS welded joints. From this study, it has been inferred that the heat input has notable effect on Ultimate Tensile Strength, Hardness and Microstructure on AISI 316 SS GTAW plates.

Design and Fabrication of Fixture for Rotary and Vertical Welding

Vetrivel A; Raguram G; Ramprakash RS; Rohidh S; Sri Hari T

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 28-30
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.87

This project is to fabricate a fixture which can be used to revolve and reciprocate the work piece for welding of cylindrical components. Typically, a welding of a cylindrical component involves rotating a large fixture mounted horizontally and the welding head performs the welding by moving in the horizontal axis. The drawbacks of this method are that it damages the welding cable upon the motion and the use of complex electrode feeding systems. This fixture eliminates those complications by making the welding components static and mounting the welding head stationary at a required angle for the operation. A Stepper motor rotates the circular fixture which is used to clamp the cylindrical work piece. The vertical movement is carried out by the screw rod which is used to rotate the fixture. This gives a cost-effective way to have good quality welded material and gives a standard weld seam in the process than the irregular seam due to human error in the conventional process. The vertical movement is carried out by the actuation of the lead screw which consists of screw in a screw nut which is fixed on the base plate. One end of the screw is connected to the handle for actuation and the other end is welded to the fixture plate. Upon rotating the handle, the lead screw starts to rotate and move up at the same time due to screw action. Thus, making the Fixture to revolve and reciprocate at the same time to weld the component vertically.

Electrical properties of polyaniline/Cadmium Oxide/ZnO Nanocomposites Thin Films

Jakeer Husain; Rehana Anjum; Shivaraj G; Gavisiddayya Mathad; Deepa Pathar; Jaisheel Sagar; Bushara Anjum

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 31-33
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.89

Polyaniline nanocomposite films were prepared with various weight percentages by in situ polymerization method using aniline, ammonium per sulfate, and cdo as starting materials. The formations of pani and pani/cdo/ZnO composites with regards to the structural and microstructural properties of the materials were investigated by SEM techniques. The DC conductivity of Pure Pani and its composites have been measured in the temperature range from 30°C to 160°C.

A Review on Decomposition/Reconstruction methods for Fusion of Medical Images

Harmeet Kaur; Satish Kumar

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 34-40
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.90

An image contains variety of information (in terms of frequency i.e. low and high) and to split that information into sub-parts, Decomposition of image is done so as to extract the desired features present in the image. On decomposing the image, it gets divided into sub-images. Each sub image will contain different information. The coarsest information is fetched in the decomposition phase. The aim of Fusion process is to bring out the best information from the base images. The Fusion technique is applied on the decomposed sub-images obtained from each source image. After successfully fusing the sub-images, single fused image is obtained after applying the reconstruction method on the fused sub-images

Comparative Analysis of Segmentation and Recognition Techniques for Offline Handwritten Words

Monika Kohli; Satish Kumar

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 41-48
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.91

A Pre-processing is the initial and vital phase in optical character recognition is the Pre-processing. Segmentation deals with the extraction of individual component from a document image. Number of techniques like projection profile, connected components, gaps between characters/components is reported in the literature for component extraction followed by feature extraction and recognition of the individual component. These techniques gives good results if components are isolated but fails if components are touched, shadowed or skewed. A novel technique is required to address such issues to enhance the recognition rate. The problem of segmentation for Roman script cursive handwriting is addressed by various authors but not enough addressed for Indian script especially Devanagari script. This paper is a review which is confined to offline handwritten script domain. It attempt to review various techniques for character segmentation considering touching characters for offline handwritten words in Devanagari script and scripts sharing similar characteristics (like Bangla, Gurumukhi), database used and their accuracy reported in the literature.

Calculation of State of Charge and State of Health of a Battery Management System in Electric Vehicle

Rakshitha Ravi; Usha Surendra

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 49-51
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.92

In Present scenario Internal Combustion Engines [ICE] is overcome by Electric Vehicles [EV] due to advantages like reduction in carbon-di-oxide [CO2] emission, cost. Advancement in electric vehicles are extensively going on and one such concept is Battery management system [BMS]in Battery Electric vehicle. In Battery Electric Vehicle there are many types of batteries and from the literature survey Lithium Ion Battery can be concluded to be suitable as it is advantageous in weight, cost, energy density and many aspects. The usage of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries has increased significantly in recent years due to their long lifespan, high energy density, high power density, and environmental benefits. various internal and external faults can occur during the battery operation, leading to performance issues and potentially serious consequences, such as thermal runaway, fires, or explosion. In Battery electric vehicle Battery plays an important role. Battery may be overcharged or it may undergo faults. Hence a proper management system is required to control the Electric vehicle [EV] and it is called battery management system [BMS]. BMS has to be designed properly and major aspects to be taken care are State of Charge, State of Health, Cell balancing, Thermal heat dissipation, Temperature, Pressure.

Fourier Transform Infrared, X-Ray Diffraction and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis Studies on the Adsorption of Copper Ii Ions Prepared From Mimusops Elengi Leaves in Aqueous Solution against Acid Activated Carbon

Elavarasan A

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 52-56
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.93

Adsorption considers were finished by watching the effects of various preliminary limits ejection of copper (II) particles from watery course of action. Morphology of adsorbent on account of adsorption has been destitute down PH, FT-IR spectra, EDX and XRD examination. The data were fitted into the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm conditions. Thermodynamics limits like change in free imperativeness, enthalpy and entropy were resolved.

Intelligence slicing: A synthesized framework to integrate artificial intelligence into 5G networks

Chandrakala V; Surya Kumar M S R

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 57-61
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.94

For best-performing networks from 5G and above, it must support a wide range of needs. It is understood that more transmission, resource assistance and communication systems will be required. Achieving these tasks can be challenging as network infrastructure becomes more complex and massive. A good solution is to incorporate more robust AI technology that has been tested to provide answers ranging from channel prediction to autonomous network management, as well as network security. Today, however, the latest technology to integrate AI into wireless networks is limited to using a unique AI algorithm to solve a specific problem. A comprehensive framework that can fully utilize the power of AI in solving various network problems remains an open problem. Therefore, this paper introduces the idea of the spy pieces on which the AI unit is installed and delivers on one condition. Intelligence units are used to flexibly control the intelligence of AI algorithms with two comprehension strategies to perform different intellectual tasks: 1) Neural network-based channel predictions and 2) Industrial network-based security acquisition, to illustrate this framework.

3D Printing Innovation during Covid-19 Pandemic

Siddavatam rammohan reddy; Balaji krushna potnuru

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 62-67
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.95

3D Printers are playing a huge role in helping to fight against COVID-19.3D Printing also known as additive manufacturing, refers to processes used to create a three-dimensional object in which layers of material are formed under computer control to create an object. With 3D printing innovation these days, we can easily transform any design into a 3D model. The utilization of 3D Printers in medical fields are growing quickly and are required to reform human services. The corona virus infection-19 has spread all over the world and stances diverse challenges to healthcare offerings. Health care staff rely on Personal Protective Equipment to protect themselves and their patients from infection. Hospitals around the globe are running out of PPE for treating COVID Patients. The constrained accessibility of PPE has impacted many countries ability to react to the emergency. The 3D printing network is ready to overcome this international scarcity. The target of the current work is to examine the 3D printing innovation with regards to a Covid-19 pandemic and to analyze which kind of PPE can be printed utilizing 3D Printers. The beneficial 3D prints for Covid-19 are Face shield mask, Safety goggles, nasal swabs, Ventilators, Oxygen Venturi valves, hands-free door openers, Tweezers, Handy tool for buttons, Respirator mask, 3D Printing pill dispenser, medical devices and surgical tools and so on.

Identification of DOS Attack by implementing SYN Flood Attack and considering CPU Load Analysis

Sona D Solanki; Asha D Solanki

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 68-74
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.96

The stupendous utilization of the web and its entrepreneurial inclination is growing the prevalence to enhance cyber threats occurrence. The absolute identification of virtual-harassment plays a critical role in safeguarding computer systems. Assessment of safety concerns when recognizing a convergence between internet-security and network equipment is vital. To construct a robust infrastructure, the requisite of a cyber-safety methodology is integral. For example, if efficacious cyber-threat takes place then it significantly enhances the power usage of the database and solely impacts its hardware elements. This article provides a glimpse into a DOS intrusion and its stronger links between CPU utilization and absorbed resources, which is one of the most critical admonitions and intimidate features of the machine. DOS threat loads the network with congestion by implementing perilous data that will disrupt the machine by incorporating an estimated excessive energy usage imbibed by a Processor. According to the elevated mechanism, the identification of the SYN flood intrusion is addressed, which is the utmost prevalent DOS attack. In this methodology, this prominent attack is identified by incorporating Wireshark tools. The surveilling and sorting online flood vulnerabilities like SYN by extending a precise intrusion detection model for the safeguarding of data as well as cybersecurity to make the structure sustainable is implemented

Pick and Place Robot for Surface Mounting Devices

Ramanathan S; Akash V; Arun Prasad R; Venkat Rahul M

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 75-81
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.97

This project is based on pick-and-place machines for placing surface mount devices onto the printed
circuit board. In general, the SMT pick and place robot using an end effectors to pick and place the
component on the PCB and a controller is used to control the movement of the stepper motor. Our SMT
pick and place machine is designed with a Cartesian configuration, and the Arduino UNO controller
with the CNC shield controls the stepper motors. The end effectors use a vacuum suction pen to pick and
place the components and a belt mechanism is used in the z-axis for up-down motion. Our machine is
portable and well suited for small scale industries. Our project satisfies one important sustainable
development goal - industry, innovation, and infrastructure.

Design and Analysis of Foot Orthotic For Lower Limb Deformities Using Composites

Sunil Kumar Sahu; Manas Ranjan Sahoo

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 82-87
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.98

This research details a procedure for the systematic design of foot orthotics based on simulation models and validation of the same with subsequent experiment. The present model may ultimately to replace the use of empirical tables for the designing of foot orthotics in accordance to the weight and activities of end-users. This present model is so general that it can simulate different kind of orthotics, loading conditions and material properties to give the desired output. Finally, the proposed model and the corresponding results may lead to the form of design basis for new generation foot orthotics. The methodical approach to the development of engineering analysis models using the FEA technique. Orthotic devices have been commonly made from plastics like polypropylene. However, insufficient mechanical properties, labour intensive preparation process, long client’s visiting times urge us to seek an alternative. Presently, two different advanced composite materials (Glassfiber, Basalt-fiber) have been chosen for the analysis purpose to achieve the low weight and High Strength.

Car Parking System Using FPGA

S.Sharmila Devi; Blessy Angel J.J.R; Deepa M; Kaaviya A.I

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 88-93
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.99

In today's days, motor vehicle use is increasing day by day, causing noise, traffic congestion, issues with parking spaces, and finding a vacant parking space is becoming increasingly difficult. In this paper we proposed a safe car parking management framework using Verilog HDL. This machine has two main modules Module-1: Password entry and exit. Module2: distance calculation and empty slot finding. Our execution time is very faster by using FPGA. This is about designing an efficient system which takes over the task of identifying free slots in a parking area that keeps parked vehicle records. Parking a vehicle also requires a password. With the rapid increase in the availability and use of cars in recent years, finding a vacant car park is a little complicated. It creates the issue of traffic congestion, emissions (noise and air), as the number of vehicles increases day by day. A FPGA based parking system has been proposed to conquer this problem.

Experimental Investigation on Banana Fiber Reinforced Phenol Formaldehyde Composite for Automotive Application

Subbiah Jeeva G; Prem Kennedy S; Nishanth S; Shanjai P; V Ajith Tisho

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 94-99
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.100

Increasing environmental awareness throughout the world has greatly impacted materials engineering and design. Renewed interest in the utilization of natural materials addresses ecological issues such as recyclability and environmental safety. Currently synthetic fibers like glass, carbon and aramids are widely being used in polymer-based composite because of their high stiffness and strength; However the fibers have serious draw-backs in terms of their bio degradability, initial processing cost, recyclability, energy consumption, machine abrasion, health hazards, etc. Despite these, most significantly, adverse environmental impacts alter the attention from synthetic fibers to natural/renewable fibers. The introduction of natural fibers from annually renewable sources is now popularly used as reinforcement in polymer matrix. The use of banana based natural fiber composite plays important role, due its vast advantage over synthetic fiber. Hence this project would be based on using banana fiber reinforced phenol formaldehyde composite, and testing its application for automobile.

STERILOID: Room Sanitization Robot

Gayathri N Shenoy; Chithu Rajan; Shibi Varghese; Vignesh M.V; ShanmugaPriya M; Priya S; Aparna George

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 100-104
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.101

In this paper we have proposed a room sanitation robot. The world around us is facing new threats day by day, latest being the corona virus. Social distancing, wearing masks, sanitizing the hands and disinfecting rooms are some precautionary measures to be taken against this deadly virus. Hence our project aims at disinfecting the rooms by deploying robots instead of manpower. Steriloid is a sanitizing robot which can be used to sanitize rooms, pathways, roads etc. It can be controlled in two modes manually or automatically. In the Automatic mode, the robot moves around the room with the help of two ultrasonic sensors. The sensors detect the obstacle while the robot is in motion and control the robot accordingly. In the Manual mode, complete control of the robot is in the user's hands. A mobile application is used to control the robot via a Bluetooth module. So the robot can move to any location. Sanitizer or sanitizing liquid is filled inside a reservoir and a pump is placed inside it. When the robot starts moving, the pump can be turned on from the mobile or manually and it starts sanitizing the room.

Effect of Azadirachta Indica in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

Divya R

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 105-111
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.102

Nanotechnology has come to mean a range of highly promising disciplines in science and
technology. Metal oxide Nanoparticles had been used in recent studies due to its large bandwidth and
high binding energy and it has potential applications like antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, antiinflammatory,
wound healing, anti-oxidant and optic properties. The usages of nanomaterials are
enormous as energy storage devices such as fuel cells, detection of threads in defence, navy, drug
delivery and water purification. Green synthesis of Nanoparticles has received a lot of attention and
close scrutiny of scientists and researchers. Leaf extract of Azadirachta Indica contains phytochemicals
and enzymes which take part in the conversion of metal compounds into Nanoparticles. Pure zinc oxide
and Manganese oxide is prepared and doped with Azadirachta Indica to analyse its general and optical
properties. We have attempted to prepare pure ZnO and MnO Nanoparticles also both were doped with
neem at 5:1 ratio by using solvothermal method.

A Conceptual Study of Blockchain to Financial Sector

KohilaKanagalakshmi T; Ms. Lavita; Shweta Biradar

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 112-117
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.103

A Blockchain technology is the basis of Bitcoin which has acknowledged widespread attentions recently. It is also known as distributed, indisputable and digital ledger which registers the transactions in the same order it is generated in a close real-time. In blockchain, transactions take place in a decentralized manner. The subsequent transactions can be included to the ledger only by the agreement of the participants in the network which is known as nodes The subsequent transactions can be added to the ledger only by the agreement of the participants in the network which is known as nodes. The applications of blockchain extending from banking, crypto currency and financial services, risk managements, social services and Internet of things. This paper explains a broad impression of blockchain technology in banking applications and recent advances.

Statistical Analysis of Physico-Chemical Parameters

Shaziya Mohammed Irfan Momin

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 118-122
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.104

Statistical analysis of some physico-chemical parameters like pH,Conductance,Total Solid,Total Alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand,Chemical Oxygen Demand, Chloride And Total Hardness were done by Pearson Correlation Regression Analysis to find the correlation between concentration of two parameters with respect to each other.This is very significant way of analysis as it represent how does increase in one of the quality or physico-chemical parameter of water leads to increase or decrease in other parameter scientifically with correlation regression equation.

Optical and photocatalytic application of ZnFe2O4SmFeO3 nanocomposites

Rashmi S.K; H.S. Bhojya Naik; Jayadevappa H

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 123-130
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.105

The xZnFe2O4–(1−x)SmFeO3 (x = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) nanocomposite were synthesised through the thermal decomposition technique and calcinated at 873 K. The obtained nanocomposite was examined using XRD, SEM with EDS, UV-DRS, and TEM with SAED. XRD exhibits a spinel-perovskite mixed structure. The 0.3ZnFe2O4-0.7SmFeO3 nanocomposite showed a substantial red shift in absorption edge with narrow band gap of ~1.8 eV. Further, photodegradation of prepared nanocomposite was assessed for the degradation of Methyl orange (MO). The 0.3ZnFe2O4-0.7SmFeO3 photocatalyst showed effective photodegradation for MO under direct sun light irradiation

IOT Based Future Technologies and Developments in Agriculture

Saraswathi S.; Aravindhan P.; Boovesh L.; Sureshkumar V.

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 131-135
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.107

In our future, smarter agriculture are mostly adopted by five technologies. The development of IOT based smart farming will be challenged day by day to turn-over the face of agriculture production and also it enhance to making it cost-effective and reduced the wastage. We are planned to use this five type of technologies and also with their help of sensor to make agriculture smarter and easier to get a rapid growth production. This technology can be applicable to implement in their effective manner to growth in larger production. In 2018, the connected agriculture market stood at USD 1.8 billion globally and the change has not stopped yet. It is expected to grow up to USD 4.3 billion by 2023 at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 19.5 billion.

Worship of Hero stone in Sangam Literature

Ramanathan G

International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 8, Pages 136-138
DOI: 10.47392/irjash.2020.108

Hero stones are erected for those who sacrificed their life for society. It is interesting that stone has been selected for the medium of such expression, implying the toughness, durability and naturalness of the bravery displayed by the person commemorated. It is a miniature replica of a funerary monument and a structural in concept, miniature in size and a product of classic traditions both conceptually and artistically. Thus, their stylistic idiom and their decorative, thematic detail would be of immense interest. The art history of several minor dynasties and feudatories can be known better from their contemporary memorial stones. In this regard, this paper express briefly about the Hero stones worships in the Sangam Literature.